Red Spruce-Fraser Fir Forest

Concept: Type covers high mountain forests in which Picea rubens (or occasionally Sorbus americana), with or without Abies fraseri or hardwoods, are naturally dominant. Herb Subtype covers the most common examples with canopies of primarily Picea rubens, with or without Abies fraseri, only minor amounts of other trees, and lower strata consisting of deciduous shrubs, herbs, and mosses. This subtype occurs primarily in North Carolina and Tennessee, but extends into Virginia. Communities that are regarded as the same association occur in West Virginia on the highest peaks. Rhododendron Subtype covers those examples with a substantial evergreen heath layer, generally associated with more exposed topography.


Distinguishing Features: The Red Spruce–Fraser Fir Forest type is distinguished from all other communities by a canopy dominated or codominated by Picea rubens or Sorbus americana occurring on high mountains.

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